My current research focuses on the risk for and management of opioid overdose while mitigating the risk of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. I study the practicalities of initiation of treatment with buprenorphine in the ED and the prehospital setting including the use of alternative buprenorphine initiation regimens such as micro- and macro-dosing. I am particularly interested in applying pharmacological principles to understanding opioid risks and management strategies, including the changing epidemiology of opioid use, including the specific opioid (prescription, heroin, fentanyl), adulterants, and use pattern. I also study the management of patients with severa alcohol withdrawal.